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Ivemark Syndrome

Abstract

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NORD is very grateful to Anastasia Konstantinidou, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Pathology, Medical School, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, for assistance in the preparation of this report.

Synonyms of Ivemark Syndrome

  • asplenia syndrome
  • asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies
  • bilateral right-sidedness sequence
  • right isomerism sequence

Disorder Subdivisions

  • No subdivisions found.

General Discussion

Ivemark syndrome is a rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body. It is characterized by the absence (asplenia) or underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the spleen, malformations of the heart and the abnormal arrangement of the internal organs of the chest and abdomen. The symptoms of Ivemark syndrome can vary greatly depending upon the specific abnormalities present. Many infants have symptoms associated with abnormalities affecting the heart including bluish discoloration to the skin due to a lack of oxygen in the blood (cyanosis), heart murmurs, and signs of congestive heart failure. Ivemark syndrome often causes life-threatening complications during infancy. The exact cause of Ivemark syndrome is not known.

The medical terminology used to describe Ivemark syndrome and related disorders is extremely complicated and confusing. Ivemark syndrome is classified as a heterotaxy disorder or a laterality disorder. These terms refer to the failure of the internal organs of the chest and abdomen to be arranged in the proper location within the body. Additional terms used when discussing Ivemark syndrome may include situs solitus (which refers to the normal positioning of these organs); situs inversus (which refers to the complete reversal of the organs so that those normally on the left side are on the right and vice versa); and situs ambiguous (which refers to the random positioning of the organs, with some in the correct place and others in the wrong location). Ivemark syndrome is usually referred to as a specific form of situs ambiguous.

Ivemark Syndrome Resources

Organizations:

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