Fructosuria is a rare but benign inherited metabolic disorder. It is characterized by the excretion of fruit sugar (fructose) in the urine. Normally, no fructose is excreted in the urine. This condition is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fructokinase in the liver. This enzyme is needed for the synthesis of glycogen (the body's form of stored energy) from fructose. The presence of fructose in the blood and urine may lead to an incorrect diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Fructosuria is characterized by the presence of fructose in the urine. There are no other symptoms. However, the fructose may be mistaken for glucose (blood sugar) leading to an incorrect diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.
Fructosuria is a rare hereditary disorder transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The defective gene has been mapped to the Gene Map Locus 2p23.3-p23.2. Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic characteristics of each individual. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males, and two X chromosomes for females. Each chromosome has a short arm designated as “p” and a long arm identified by the letter “q”. Chromosomes are further subdivided into many bands that are numbered. For example, chromosome 2p23.3 refers to band 23 on the short arm of chromosome 2.
Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.
All individuals carry 4-5 abnormal genes. Parents who are close relatives (consanguineous) have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.
Fructosuria affects about 1 out of every 130,000 persons in the United States. It affects males and females in equal numbers.
Diagnosis of Fructosuria is made by testing the urine for the presence of fructose. Fructosuria does not require treatment as the symptoms are harmless.
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