Ruvalcaba syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by short stature, abnormalities affecting the head and facial (craniofacial) area, mental retardation, skeletal malformations, and/or underdeveloped (hypoplastic) genitalia. Characteristic craniofacial features include an abnormally small head (microcephaly); an abnormally small, narrow nose; and down-slanting eyelid folds (palpebral fissures). Skeletal malformations may include fifth fingers that are permanently fixed in a bent position (clinodactyly) and/or abnormally short bones between the wrists and the fingers (metacarpals) and the ankles and toes (metatarsals), resulting in unusually small hands and feet. In addition, affected children may have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) and/or unusual prominence of the breastbone (pectus carinatum). Ruvalcaba syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait.