This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Anal cancer is a rare form of cancer that occurs due to abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth in the anus. Signs and symptoms of the condition include rectal bleeding; a lump in or near the anus; anal pain; itching; changes in bowel habits; and/or swollen lymph nodes. In most cases, the underlying cause of anal cancer is unknown. There appears to be a link between anal cancer and the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Other risk factors for anal cancer include HIV infection, sexual activity, smoking, and a weakened immune system. The best treatment options for anal cancer depend on many factors including the stage of the condition, the location of the tumor and if there are associated conditions (i.e. HIV) but may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
For more information, visit GARD.