This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to perform tasks or movements, despite having the desire and physical ability to perform them. It is caused by damage to the brain, especially the parietal lobe, and can arise from many diseases, tumors, a stroke, or traumatic brain injury. In some cases it is present from birth. There are several types of apraxia, which may occur alone or together. These include:
- Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia is the inability to carry out facial movements on demand. This may include licking the lips, sticking out the tongue, whistling, coughing, or winking.
- Ideational apraxia is the inability to carryout learned, complex tasks with multiple, sequential movements. This may include dressing, eating, and bathing.
- Ideomotor apraxia is the inability to perform a learned task (such as using a tool) or communicate using gestures (like waving good-bye).
- Limb-kinetic apraxia is the inability to make fine, precise movements with an arm or leg. This may include buttoning a shirt or tying a shoe.
- Verbal apraxia is difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements. Verbal apraxia may be acquired or present from birth.
- Constructional apraxia is the inability to copy, draw, or construct simple figures.
- Oculomotor apraxia is difficulty moving the eyes on command.
Treatment of apraxia may include physical, speech, or occupational therapy. If apraxia occurs as a symptom of another disorder, treatment should be directed to the underlying condition.
For more information, visit GARD.