This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Catamenial pneumothorax is an extremely rare condition that affects women. Pneumothorax is the medical term for a collapsed lung, a condition in which air or gas is trapped in the space surrounding the lungs causing the lungs to collapse. Women with catamenial pneumothorax have recurrent episodes of pneumothorax that occur within 72 hours before or after the start of menstruation. The exact cause of catamenial pneumothorax is unknown and several theories have been proposed. Many cases are associated with the abnormal development of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus (endometriosis). Some believe that catamenial pneumothorax is the most common form of thoracic endometriosis (a condition in which the endometrial tissue grows in or around the lungs). A diagnosis of catamenial pneumothorax is usually suspected when a woman of reproductive age and with endometriosis has episodes of pneumothorax. Treatment is with hormones and surgery.
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