This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a form of DI that occurs when the body has lower than normal levels of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), which is characterized by frequent urination. Diabetes insipidus is subdivided into central and nephrogenic DI. Two other forms are gestational DI and primary polydipsia (dipsogenic DI). Central DI results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When this hormone reaches the kidneys, it directs them to make less urine. The major symptoms of central diabetes insipidus (DI) include urinating too much (polyuria), getting up at night to urinate (nocturia), and drinking too much liquids (polydipsia). Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders. The three main options for the treatment of central DI include a synthetic hormone called desmopressin, which can be taken by as an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill; other drugs, such as chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, thiazide diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and a low-solute (mostly low-sodium, low-protein) diet.
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