This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms can vary widely, but may include distinctive facial characteristics, growth delays, intellectual disability and limb defects. Approximately 60% of people affected by CdLS have a disease-causing variation (mutation) in the NIPBL gene, and about 10% of cases are caused by mutations in one of four known genes: SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21. In the remaining 30% of cases, the underlying genetic cause of the condition is unknown. CdLS can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (NIPBL, SMC2, or RAD21) or X-linked (SMC1A or HDAC8) manner. However, most cases result from new (de novo) mutations and occur in people with no family history of the condition. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person.
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