This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Ewing sarcoma is a type of cancerous tumor that mainly affects children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs, pelvis, or chest. Symptoms may include swelling over the location of the tumor, and pain which gets worse over time. Other symptoms may depend on the size and location of the tumor. Ewing sarcoma can spread to other parts of the body (metastasize), and other symptoms may develop such as fever, night sweats, and tiredness. The cause of Ewing sarcoma is unknown. Diagnosis is based on a clinical examination, health history, imaging studies, and blood tests. A biopsy to examine a small piece of the tumor under a microscope is also often done. Treatment depends upon the size, location, and whether the tumor has spread. It usually includes chemotherapy, radiation and/or surgery. Many people with Ewing sarcoma experience side effects from treatment which can include decreased numbers of white blood cells, infections, fever, and an increased risk for a second cancer.
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