This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Factor X deficiency is a rare disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. The severity of the disorder and the associated signs and symptoms can vary significantly from person to person. Common features of factor X deficiency may include easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in the urine, and prolonged bleeding after minor injuries. Women with factor X deficiency may also experience heavy menstrual bleeding and may have an increased risk for first trimester miscarriages. Acquired (non-inherited) factor X deficiency, which is the most common form of the disorder, generally occurs in people with no family history of the disorder. Acquired factor X deficiency has a variety of causes including liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, exposure to certain medications that affect clotting, and certain types of cancer. The inherited form of factor X deficiency (also called congenital factor X deficiency) is caused by changes (mutations) in the F10 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Factor X deficiency can be diagnosed based on the symptoms and through laboratory tests to measure clotting time. The goal of treatment is to control bleeding through intravenous (IV) infusions of plasma or concentrates of clotting factors.
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