This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a degenerative condition which causes the upper ends of the thigh bones (femurs) to break down due to a disrupted blood supply and poor bone repair. It can lead to pain and limping, hip collapse, and cause the legs to be of unequal length. The development of ANFH is associated with steroid use, alcohol use, smoking, auto-immune disorders, and other medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Less commonly, ANFH can occur as the result of trauma to the hip, such as a hip fracture or hip surgery. Around 20,000-30,000 cases are reported each year in the United States. This condition mainly affects young, active adults, but can occur in children as well. In children, ANFH is known as Legg-Calves-Perthes disease. Most people with ANFH do not have a family history of this condition, but there are some very rare inherited forms of ANFH.
ANFH is usually diagnosed by X-rays or an MRI. Treatment depends on how much damage is present in the
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