This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited heart condition characterized by thickening of the heart muscle. The thickening most often occurs in the muscle wall that separates the left and right ventricles from each other (interventricular septum). This may restrict the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, or it may lead to less efficient pumping of blood. Signs and symptoms can vary. While some people have no symptoms, others may have chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, lightheadedness, dizziness, and/or fainting. Even in the absence of symptoms, familial HCM can have serious consequences such as life-threatening arrhythmias, heart failure, and an increased risk of sudden death. Familial HCM may be caused by mutations in any of several genes and is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment may depend on severity of symptoms and may include medications, surgical procedures, and/or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).
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