This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) is an inherited form of primary hyperparathyroidism that is not associated with other features. The age of diagnosis varies from childhood to adulthood. In FIHP, tumors involving the parathyroid glands cause the production and release of excess parathyroid hormone, which in turn causes increased calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). The tumors are usually benign, but a cancerous tumor can develop in rare cases. Abnormal levels of calcium cause many of the symptoms of FIHP, including kidney stones, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. Osteoporosis often also develops. FIHP may be caused by mutations in the MEN1, CDC73 (also known as the HRPT2 gene), or CASR genes and is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. In some cases, the cause is unknown. Mutations in the MEN1 and CDC73 genes cause other conditions in which hyperparathyroidism is one of many features, but some people with mutations in these genes have only isolated hyperparathyroidism. FIHP can also represent an early stage of other syndromes. Treatment for FIHP often includes surgical removal of the affected gland(s).
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