This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) is a rare, genetic disorder that affects the amount and distribution of fat (adipose tissue) in the body. Symptoms typically develop around puberty, after having normal adipose tissue in childhood. FPLD2 causes a loss of adipose tissue from the limbs, torso, buttocks and hips, while causing a buildup of adipose tissue in the face, neck, and upper back. It may also cause increased musculature. Some people with FPLD2 have areas of dark, thick skin (acanthosis nigricans), and females may have excessive hairiness (hirsutism) and menstrual abnormalities. Metabolic abnormalities develop in adolescence or adulthood, leading to signs and symptoms that may include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, diabetes, pancreatitis (or recurrent acute pancreatitis), liver steatosis, atherosclerosis, and an increased risk of heart disease.
FPLD2 is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene and inheritance is autosomal dominant. Treatment aims to correct metabolic abnormalities and manage complications. This may involve medications, monitoring the diet, and exercise. Plastic surgery may be considered by some individuals. People with FPL2 are encouraged to seek counseling and support after being diagnosed, as the disorder can cause anxiety and psychological distress. The long-term health outlook generally depends on the severity of complications such as diabetes, pancreatitis, and heart disease.
For more information, visit GARD.