This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a genetic disorder characterized by abnormalities in skeletal development and problems in other organs of the body. It is part of a group of diseases called otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, which also includes otopalatodigital syndrome type 1, otopalatodigital syndrome type 2, and Melnick-Needles syndrome. In general, these disorders involve hearing loss (due to malformations in the tiny bones in the ears (ossicles)), cleft roof of the mouth (palate), and defects of the bones in the fingers and/or toes (digits). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia is distinguished from the other diseases of the group by the presence of joint deformities (contractures) that restrict the movement of certain joints. Other symptoms may include prominent brow ridges; wide-set and downward-slanting eyes; a very small lower jaw and chin (micrognathia); small, missing or misaligned teeth; bowed limbs; an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis); obstruction of ureters; heart defects; and breathing problems. Males generally have more severe features than females. FMD is caused by mutations in the FLNA gene. Inheritance is X-linked. There is also a form of FMD caused by mutations in the gene MAP3K7 with is known as frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2 and it is is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment depends on the problems present and may include hearing aid and surgery to correct the facial findings and the bone defects.
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