This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Human HOXA1 syndromes are very rare disorders present at birth mainly affecting the development of the ears, eyes, and cardiovascular system. The main symptoms include inability to move the eyes to the sides (horizontal gaze paralysis), deafness, and birth defects involving blood flow in and out of the heart. Human HOXA1 syndromes have been described in Native American populations (primarily the Navajo and Apache Indians) and in a few Saudi Arabian and Turkish families. Symptoms may vary by population. Human HOXA1 syndromes are caused by genetic changes (DNA variants) in the HOXA1 gene and inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Diagnosis is made based on the symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing. Treatment is based on managing the specific symptoms.
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