This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Joubert syndrome is disorder of brain development that may affect many parts of the body. It is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis (a part of the brain that controls balance and coordination) and a malformed brain stem (connection between the brain and spinal cord). Together, these cause the characteristic appearance of a molar tooth sign on MRI. Signs and symptoms can vary but commonly include weak muscle tone (hypotonia); abnormal breathing patterns; abnormal eye movements; ataxia; distinctive facial features; and intellectual disability. Various other abnormalities may also be present. Joubert syndrome may be caused by mutations in any of many genes. Inheritance is usually autosomal recessive, but rarely it may be X-linked recessive. Treatment is supportive and depends on the symptoms in each person.
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