This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a condition that affects the kidneys. Many experts consider it a variant of minimal change disease, but some experts believe it is a separate condition. It may present with nephrotic syndrome, which is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine (proteinuria), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. It can also present with blood in the urine (hematuria). MPGN is characterized by an increased number of mesangial cells in the glomeruli in the kidneys and damage to the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the structures that help filter wastes and fluids. MPGN may occur in several renal diseases such as IgA nephropathy (commonly), IgM nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and C1q nephropathy. However, in some cases, the underlying cause of MPGN remains unclear. Treatment may depend on the cause (if known) and may include steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and/or cyclophosphamide, and other therapies to treat specific symptoms. Most people with MPGN have a good prognosis, but some may develop chronic kidney disease, which can progress to end stage renal failure.
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