This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome (MMDS) is a severe condition that affects the energy-producing structures of cells (called the mitochondria). Signs and symptoms of this condition generally develop early in life and may include encephalopathy, hypotonia (poor muscle tone), seizures, developmental delay, failure to thrive, lactic acidosis and a variety of other health problems. Due to the severity of the condition, most affected babies do not live past infancy. MMDS can be caused by changes (mutations) in the NFU1 gene or the BOLA3 gene. In these cases, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person.
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