This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1), one of the two types of myotonic dystrophy, is an inherited type of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles and other body systems (e.g., heart, eyes, endocrine system, and central nervous system). MD1 has three forms that somewhat overlap: the mild form, classic form, and congenital form (present at birth). The mild form has the least severe symptoms of the different forms of MD1 and is associated with a normal life span. The classic form is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, prolonged muscle tensing (myotonia), cataract, and often, abnormal heart function. Adults with the classic form may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. The congenital form is characterized by severe generalized weakness at birth (hypotonia), often causing complications with breathing and early death. MD1 is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is caused by mutations in the DMPK gene. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present.
For more information, visit GARD.