This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the development of the bones. People with this condition have bones that break easily, often from little or no trauma. However, the severity is different from person to person. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can even occur before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person’s lifetime. People with OI may also have dental problems (dentinogenesis imperfecta) and hearing loss in adulthood. Other features may include muscle weakness, loose joints, and skeletal malformations. There are various recognized forms of OI which are distinguished by their features and genetic causes. Depending on the genetic cause, OI may be inherited in an autosomal dominant (more commonly) or autosomal recessive pattern. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, clinical exam, imaging studies, and may be confirmed by the results of genetic testing. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and aims to decrease the number of fractures and disabilities.
For more information, visit GARD.