This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes periods of involuntary movement. Common symptoms include irregular, jerking or shaking movements, prolonged contraction of muscles, chorea, and/or writhing movements of the limb. Symptoms usually last between 1 and 4 hours. The movements may have no known trigger or be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, menses, or excitement. The familial form is caused by mutations in the PNKD gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Treatment might involve the use of antiseizure medications such as Clonazepam and avoidance of triggers.
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