This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is an inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the choroid (vascular layer) of the eye. It most commonly occurs in young, near-sighted (myopic) women. The symptoms and severity may vary from person to person. Symptoms may include a blind spot (scotomata), blurred vision, photopsia (perceived flashes of light), floaters, light sensitivity (photophobia), distorted vision, and/or loss of peripheral vision. The majority of cases are self-limited (resolving on their own) with good visual prognosis, but permanent, severe visual loss can occur as a result of inflammation and complications such as growth of additional blood vessels (neovascularization) and scarring.
The exact cause of PIC is not known, but it is thought to involve both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. It is proposed to be an autoimmune disease in which multiple genes interact with each other and an environmental “trigger” (such as an infection or stress) to cause a person to develop PIC.
Treatment is challenging and depends on the course of the disease and whether complications arise. The majority of people with PIC who do not have neovascularization do not require treatment. For those who develop complications or have a more severe disease course, treatment may involve local or systemic corticosteroids, other immunosuppressive therapies, intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, and/or surgery.
For more information, visit GARD.