This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) affects the small blood vessels in the central nervous system and other organs. Symptoms begin in adulthood and can include loss of vision, Raynaud’s disease, kidney and liver disease, and cognitive problems that get worse over time. Other symptoms may include migraines, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hypothyroidism. Death often occurs 10-15 years after the first symptoms appear. RVCL-S is caused by genetic variations in the TREX1 gene, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, clinical exam, imaging studies of the brain, and may be confirmed by the results of genetic testing. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms.
RVCL-S is considered to include the following three diseases which were previously thought to be separate conditions: hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS); cerebroretinal vasculopathy (CRV); and hereditary vascular retinopathy (HVR).
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