This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Rhabdoid tumor (RT) is an aggressive pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that arises in the kidney, the liver, the peripheral nerves and all miscellaneous soft-parts throughout the body. RT involving the central nervous system (CNS) is called atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. RT usually occurs in infancy or childhood. In most cases, the first symptoms are linked to the compressive effects of a bulky tumor (such as respiratory distress, abdominal mass, peripheral nerve palsy). In about 90% of cases it is caused by a mutation in the SMARCB1 gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene. In rare cases, it may be caused by a mutation in the SMARCA4 gene. No standard care exists for RT, although there are many ongoing studies. Treatment includes resection of the tumor mass and chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Because atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney have the same gene mutation and similar biopsy findings, they are now considered identical or closely related entities. Also, 10-15% of patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors have brain tumors.
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