This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, is a form of cancer that occurs due to abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth in the stomach. Most people with early stomach cancer have no signs or symptoms of the condition. In advanced stages, symptoms may include indigestion; nausea and vomiting; difficulty swallowing; feeling full after eating small amounts of food; loss of appetite; vomiting blood; fatigue; and/or weight loss. Most cases of stomach cancer occur sporadically in people with little to no family history of the condition; however, approximately 10% of stomach cancers are considered “familial.” Although the underlying cause of some familial cases is unknown, genetic changes (mutations) are identified in a subset of people affected by stomach cancer. Hereditary cancer syndromes associated with a predisposition to stomach cancer include hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. In other families, a cluster of stomach cancers may be due to a combination of gene(s) and/or other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. The best treatment options for stomach cancer depend on many factors including the stage of the condition and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or targeted therapy (such as monoclonal antibody therapy).
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