Roseola Infantum is an acute infectious disorder of infants or very young children. Characterized by high fever and the appearance of a red skin rash, this disorder may resemble Rubella after the fever has disappeared. Seizures may also occur.
The incubation period before symptoms of Roseola Infantum appear is approximately 5 to 15 days. A high fever begins abruptly and usually lasts for 3 or 4 days without an obvious identifiable cause. Convulsions are common during this period. Low levels of white blood cells (leukopenia) may occur by the 3rd day. The spleen may be slightly enlarged. The fever usually breaks on the 4th day, and a characteristic rash of red spots or elevated (macular or maculopapular) spots appears. This rash may cover the chest and abdomen, although it often appears in a mild form on the face and extremities. Temperature returns to normal at this stage, and the child usually feels and acts well. In some cases, the rash may be so mild that it goes unnoticed.
In most affected infants and children, Roseola Infantum is caused by infection with a herpesvirus known as human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). Less commonly, the condition is thought to result from infection with human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). Although the infection is known to spread from person to person, the specific mode of transmission remains unknown.
Roseola Infantum most commonly affects infants and children between the ages of six months and two years. The condition typically occurs during the spring and fall months and, in some cases, has been reported in local outbreaks.
Roseola Infantum usually spontaneously resolves within a few days. Therefore, treatment of the condition is primarily symptomatic and supportive. Such measures may include providing certain medications to help reduce fever (antipyretics), such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. However, aspirin must be avoided, since there appears to be an association between the onset of Reye Syndrome and the use of aspirin in children or adolescents with certain viral illnesses. Reye Syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, is primarily characterized by distinctive, fatty changes of the liver and sudden inflammation and swelling of the brain (acute encephalopathy). (For more information on this disorder, please choose “Reye” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
According to reports in the medical literature, if infants or children are prone to experiencing convulsions, the administration of certain sedatives when there is a sudden onset of fever may be helpful in preventing convulsive episodes in association with Roseola Infantum.
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