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Gaucher Disease - Video

The animated videos in NORD’s Rare Disease Video Library provide brief introductions to rare disease topics for patients, caregivers, students, professionals and the public. NORD collaborates with medical experts, patient organizations, videographers and Osmosis to develop the videos, which are made possible by individual donations, educational grants and corporate sponsorships. NORD is solely responsible for the content.


General Discussion

Summary

Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder in which deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase results in the accumulation of harmful quantities of certain fats (lipids), specifically the glycolipid glucocerebroside, throughout the body especially within the bone marrow, spleen and liver. The symptoms and physical findings associated with Gaucher disease vary greatly from patient to patient. Some individuals develop few or no symptoms (asymptomatic); others may have serious complications.

Common manifestations of Gaucher disease include an abnormally enlarged liver and/or spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), low levels of circulating red blood cells (anemia), low levels of platelets (thrombocytopenia), and skeletal abnormalities. Platelets are blood cells that promote clotting and patients with thrombocytopenia may develop bleeding problems. Three separate forms of Gaucher disease have been identified and are distinguished by the absence of, or the presence and extent of, neurological complications. All three forms of Gaucher disease are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

Introduction

Gaucher disease is categorized as a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Lysosomes are the major digestive units in cells. Enzymes within lysosomes break down or “digest” nutrients, including certain complex carbohydrates and fats. In Gaucher disease certain sugar (glucose) containing fat, known as glycolipids, abnormally accumulate in the body because of the lack of the enzyme, glucocerebrosidase. This accumulation or “storage” of lipids leads to the various symptoms or physical findings associated with a lysosomal storage disease. Gaucher disease is the second most common type of lysosomal storage disorder. (Recent publications indicate that Fabry disease is the most prevalent LSD).

Synonyms of Gaucher Disease

  • cerebroside lipidosis syndrome
  • Gaucher splenomegaly
  • glucocerebrosidase deficiency
  • glucocerebrosidosis
  • glucosylceramidase deficiency
  • glucosyl cerebroside lipidosis
  • kerasin lipoidosis
  • kerasin thesaurismosis
  • lipid histiocytosis (kerasin type)
  • sphingolipidosis 1

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