NORD gratefully acknowledges Prof. dr. Hans van Bokhoven, Head Molecular Neurogenetics, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences & Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen,The Netherlands, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. Symptoms can vary greatly from one person to another. Affected individuals often have abnormalities affecting the limbs including ectrodactyly, a condition in which part or all of the central digits (fingers or toes) are missing. Ectrodactyly often affects the middle fingers or toes, but can present differently in different people (or be absent altogether). A groove or gap in the upper lip (cleft lip) and a groove or gap in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) may also occur. The ectodermal dysplasia component refers to abnormalities to structures that arise from the outermost layer of the embryo (ectoderm). In EEC syndrome, this generally affects the hair, teeth, nails, skin and sweat glands. Individuals with EEC syndrome can also develop a variety of additional symptoms including abnormalities of the genitourinary system and the eyes. Intelligence does not seem to be affected. Most cases of EEC syndrome are caused by mutations of the TP63 gene and are either new (spontaneous) mutations or are inherited as autosomal dominant disorders.
There are at least four other syndromes caused by mutations of the TP63 gene including AEC/Hay-wells syndrome, Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome, limb-mammary syndrome, and ADULT syndrome. In addition, TP63 mutations have also been reported as the cause of nonsyndromic split hand/foot malformation and nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (CL/P). There is considerable overlap among these disorders and some researchers consider them different expressions of one disease process. Despite the overlap, the TP63-associated syndromes have their own characteristic physical findings related, in part, to the specific mutation of the TP63gene present. These syndromes are further classified as forms of ectodermal dysplasia, a group of disorders characterized by abnormalities that occur during early embryonic development. Ectodermal dysplasias typically affect the hair, teeth, nails and/or skin.
Please note that some of these organizations may provide information concerning certain conditions potentially associated with this disorder.
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.
The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100