NORD gratefully acknowledges Joseph Lee, NORD Editorial Intern from the University of Notre Dame, Dr. Paul Trainor, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Dr. Pedro A. Sanchez-Lara, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Dr. Michael Dixon, Univ. of Manchester, UK, and Ethylin Wang Jabs, MD, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by distinctive abnormalities of the head and face. Craniofacial abnormalities tend to involve underdevelopment of the zygomatic complex, cheekbones, jaws, palate and mouth which can lead to breathing and feeding difficulties. In addition, affected individuals may also have malformations of the eyes including a downward slant of the opening between the upper and lower eyelids (palpebral fissures) and anomalies of external and middle ear structures, which may result in hearing loss. Brain and behavioral anomalies such as microcephaly and psychomotor delay have also been occasionally reported as part of the condition. The specific symptoms and physical characteristics associated with TCS can vary greatly from one individual to another. Some individuals may be so mildly affected as to go undiagnosed, while others may develop serious, life-threatening complications. TCS is primarily caused by changes (mutations) in the TCOF1 gene, but is also associated with mutations in the POLR1B, POLR1C or POLR1D genes. In the case of TCOF1 and POLR1B, the mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, while for POLR1C it is autosomal recessive. In contrast, both autosomal dominant and recessive mutations in POLR1D have been reported in association with TCS.
TCS is named after Edward Treacher Collins, a London ophthalmologist who first described the disorder in the medical literature in 1900. TCS is also known as mandibulofacial dysostosis or Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome.
The symptoms and severity of TCS can vary dramatically from one person to another, even among members of the same family. Some individuals may be so mildly affected that they can go undiagnosed; others may have significant abnormalities and the potential for life-threatening respiratory complications. It is important to note that affected individuals will not have all of the symptoms discussed below.
The major characteristic features of TCS encompass certain bones of the face, ears and soft tissues around the eyes. Affected individuals present with distinctive facial features and potentially develop hearing and vision problems. The abnormalities of TCS are typically symmetric (almost identical on both sides of the face) and are present at birth (congenital). Speech and language development can be compromised by hearing loss, cleft palate or jaw and airway problems. Intelligence is usually unaffected but brain and behavioral anomalies such as microcephaly and cognitive delay have been reported infrequently as part of the condition.
Infants with TCS exhibit underdeveloped (hypoplastic) or absent cheekbones (malars), causing this area of the face to appear flat or sunken. The bone of the lower jaw (mandible) is incompletely developed (mandibular hypoplasia), causing the chin and the lower jaw to appear abnormally small (micrognathia). Certain bony structures (e.g., coronoid and condyloid processes) that anchor portions of the lower jaw bone to muscle can be unusually flat or absent. Affected infants may also exhibit underdevelopment of the throat (pharyngeal hypoplasia). Pharyngeal hypoplasia with underdevelopment of the lower jaw (mandibular hypoplasia) and/or abnormal smallness of the jaw (micrognathia) may contribute to feeding problems and/or breathing difficulties (respiratory insufficiency) during early infancy. Children may experience obstructive sleep apnea which is characterized by repeated short interruptions of normal breathing and air movement during sleep. In some severely-affected individuals, life-threatening respiratory difficulties may develop. (For more information on this condition, choose “Infantile Apnea” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Additional abnormalities that may contribute to respiratory or feeding difficulties include narrowing or obstruction of the nasal airways (choanal stenosis or atresia). Some children may be described as having features of “Pierre Robin sequence” which include severe micrognathia, a tongue that is displaced farther back in the mouth than normal (glossoptosis) with or without incomplete closure of the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). Even in patients where the palate fuses, it may remain high arched which can still affect feeding and respiration. In addition, malformations of the mouth and the jaw may result in dental abnormalities, such as teeth that are underdeveloped (hypoplastic) and/or misaligned (malocclusion). Additional dental abnormalities have also been reported including missing teeth (tooth agenesis), clouding or discoloration of the enamel of teeth (enamel opacity), and improper (ectopic) eruption of certain upper teeth (maxillary molars).
Individuals with TCS may develop hearing loss due to the failure of sound waves to be conducted through the middle ear (conductive hearing loss). Conductive hearing loss usually results from abnormalities affecting structures within the middle ear and individuals with TCS may also have malformed or absent ossicles, the three small bones through which sound waves are transmitted in the middle ear (i.e., incus, malleus, and stapes). In addition, the external ear structures are often absent, small or malformed (microtia), with narrowing (stenosis) or blockage (atresia) of the external ear canals. The outer ears may be crumpled or rotated. In contrast, the inner ear is usually unaffected, although malformation of the bony spiral organ in the inner ear (cochlea) and the structures within the inner ear that play a role in balance (vestibular apparatus) have been reported. Additional symptoms may include the presence of small growths of skin or pits just in front of the external ear (preauricular tags) and an abnormal passage that is closed on one end (blind fistula) that normally drains the ears to the nose.
Many infants with TCS have abnormalities of the tissue surrounding the eyes. These eye differences can give affected individuals a saddened facial appearance. The most common ocular symptom is a downward slant to the opening between the upper and lower eyelids (palpebral fissures). Additional symptoms include a lower eyelid notch or cleft of missing lid tissue (lid coloboma), partial absence of eyelashes on the lower eyelid, crossed eyes (strabismus) and narrowed tear ducts (dacrostenosis). Occasionally malformations of the globe are seen and can include notch or cleft of missing tissue of the iris or abnormally small eyes (microphthalmia). Vision loss may occur in some patients. The degree of visual impairment varies depending upon the severity and combination of ocular abnormalities. Lower eyelid abnormalities can cause the eyes to dry out, which increases the risk of chronic irritation and eye infections.
Approximately 5% of individuals with TCS display development deficits or neurological problems such as psychomotor delay. However, intelligence is generally unaffected with normal language development. Nonetheless, issues with speech development can occur because of hearing loss, cleft palate or difficulties producing sounds because of structural distortion. Some individuals with TCS exhibit additional physical abnormalities such as widely spaced eyes, notching of the upper eyelid, nasal deformity, an abnormally wide mouth (macrostomia), unusual growth of the scalp hair toward the cheeks, congenital heart defects and/or gastrointestinal malformation.
TCS is caused by mutation of the TCOF1, POLR1B, POLR1C or POLR1D genes. In the case of TCOF1 the mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, although very rare cases of autosomal recessive mutations have been observed. Mutations in POLR1B are autosomal dominant, whereas in POLR1C they are autosomal recessive, and for POLR1D, can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.
Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait that are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother. Dominant genetic disorders occur when only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the disease. For TCOF1, POLR1B and POLR1D, the abnormal gene can be inherited from either parent, or can be the result of a new mutation (spontaneous gene change) in the affected individual. In approximately 60% of TCS patients, the mutation is a new mutation that occurs randomly (spontaneously) without a previous family history of the disorder (de novo mutation). However, a parent may be mildly affected and unaware that they have the disorder. The risk of passing the abnormal gene from affected parent to offspring is 50% for each pregnancy. The risk is the same for male and female children. Irrespective of whether the mutation is inherited from the mother or father, it appears to have no bearing on severity of the TCS condition in their children.
Recessive genetic disorders (e.g. TCS caused by POLR1C or POLR1D mutations) occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically unaffected for that particular trait is 25%.
Mutations of the TCOF1 gene cause most (approximately 80%) cases of TCS. TCOF1 carries instructions that encode (create) a protein known as treacle. The precise role that treacle plays in the development of TCS is not fully understood. Researchers have determined that treacle plays a role in the creation of certain small structures found within cells that assemble proteins (ribosomes). This is particularly important for the formation of a group of cells called neural crest cells which form very early during embryonic development and give rise to most of the bone and cartilage underlying the face.
Conditions that arise from defects in the formation (biogenesis) of ribosomes are termed ribosomopathies. POLR1B encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase 1, whereas POLR1C and POLR1D encode subunits of RNA polymerases I and III, each of which are also essential for ribosome biogenesis. It seems likely that mutations in TCOF1, POLR1B, POLR1C and POLR1D cause insufficient protein assembly and do not allow specific neural and neural crest cells to meet their proliferation and growth needs during the development of the embryo. Because TCS is highly variable, researchers speculate that additional genetic and possibly environmental factors may also play a role in the variable severity of the disorder. In support of this concept, recent experimental data has indicated that treacle plays a critical role in protection against oxidative stress induced DNA damage in neural cells, as well as in spindle orientation during neural cell division, both of which subsequently affects head and facial development.
TCS affects males and females in equal numbers. The prevalence is estimated to be between 1 in 10,000-50,000 individuals in the general population. Some mildly affected individuals may go undiagnosed, making it difficult to determine the disorder’s true frequency in the general population. It is therefore highly recommended, that the parents and perhaps siblings of a child affected with TCS in association with a mutation in TCOF1, POLR1B, POLR1C or POLR1D, be tested even if they appear unaffected. This is important for future family planning. It should not be assumed that the mutation in an affected child occurred spontaneously, just because each parent exhibits no facial differences. However, it should be noted that some individuals (approximately 10-15%) with the features and physical findings of TCS do not have mutations in any of the four above mentioned genes, suggesting that additional as yet unidentified genes may also cause TCS.
A diagnosis of TCS is made based upon a thorough clinical evaluation, a detailed patient history and identification of characteristic physical findings. Many associated abnormalities such as malformation or absence of the external ear are present at birth (congenital).
Clinical Testing and Work-Up
Specialized X-ray studies will confirm the presence and/or extent of certain observed craniofacial abnormalities. For example, such imaging tests show the abnormal smallness of the jaw (micrognathia) due to underdevelopment of the lower jaw bone (mandibular hypoplasia), the presence and/or extent of hypoplasia affecting certain parts of the skull, and/or the presence of additional malformations of the ear that cannot be seen during clinical evaluation.
In addition, in those affected individuals who exhibit few signs, a thorough clinical examination and X-ray imaging of the craniofacial area can demonstrate the subtle presence of certain characteristic features (e.g., hypoplasia of zygomatic arches) associated with TCS. Because TCS shares several physical features that may occur in other craniofacial syndromes, many researchers recommend that diagnostic confirmation be made through molecular genetic testing and/or, in some cases, a careful, detailed family history.
Molecular genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis is available through commercial and academic research laboratories to detect mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1B, POLR1C and POLR1D genes. Approximately 80% of individuals have an identifiable mutation of the TCOF1 gene. Furthermore, genetic confirmation of a TCOF1, POLR1B, POLR1C, or POLR1D mutation can be detected before birth (prenatally) by amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling if a mutation has been identified in an affected family member. In certain cases, fetal ultrasonography, which uses reflected sound waves to create an image of the developing fetus, can reveal characteristic findings suggestive of TCS. Relatives, especially parents and siblings, of an individual diagnosed with TCS should be carefully examined because mild cases often go unrecognized and undiagnosed.
There is no cure for TCS. Treatment is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists. Pediatricians, pediatric ear, nose and throat specialists (pediatric otolaryngologists), pediatric dentist, pediatric nurse, plastic surgeon, speech pathologists, audiologists, ophthalmologists, psychologists, geneticists, and other healthcare professionals may need to systematically and comprehensively plan an affect child’s treatment.
Physicians regularly monitor individuals with TCS to detect certain abnormalities that may be associated with the disorder. For example, an affected individual’s hearing should be carefully monitored to detect any onset of hearing loss. Assessment of an infant’s hearing is critical and a full assessment should be done early during life, even before one year of age and then yearly, to ensure proper speech development.
An instrument (ophthalmoscope) is used to visualize the interior of the eye to detect any possibility of visual impairment. This examination is important to ensure appropriate preventive steps and/or prompt treatment for those who exhibit abnormalities of the eyes in association with TCS (e.g., colobomas, strabismus, microphthalmia). Affected individuals should also be monitored for jaw and dental abnormalities.
Early intervention is important to ensure that affected children reach their potential. Special services that may be beneficial include speech therapy, special social support, and other medical, social, and/or vocational services.
Genetic counseling is recommended for affected individuals and their families.
In some patients, surgical reconstruction of craniofacial malformations may be necessary. Surgery may be performed to repair cleft palate, to reconstruct the jaw, or to repair other bones in the skull (e.g., malar bones, zygomatic complex). The specific surgical procedures used and the age when surgery is performed depends upon the severity of the malformations, overall health and personal preference.
For example, different abnormalities may be treated at different ages. Cleft palate is often corrected around 1-2 years of age. Zygomatic and orbital reconstruction usually occurs around 5-7 years of age. External and inner ear reconstruction usually occurs around 6 years of age. Jawbone lengthening or reconstruction can range from newborn to teenager years depending upon the extent and severity of the condition.
Obstructive airways can be a serious problem not always obvious to parents or clinicians. A sleep or nap study may be used to help determine the severity of the obstruction and may influence the treatment plan. In severe affected individuals, a tube may be surgically inserted into the windpipe (trachea) to maintain an effective airway, a procedure called a tracheostomy. A procedure known as mandibular distraction, which is used to increase the length of the jawbone, may be necessary. A tube may be surgically implanted into the stomach to assure that affected infants experiencing feeding difficulties receive sufficient calories (gastrostomy).
Multiple surgeries may be required to treat the various craniofacial abnormalities that are associated with TCS. Despite the number of surgeries, results vary from one person to another and the end result is rarely fully corrective.
In some individuals, an operation may be performed to help correct middle ear malformations and associated conductive hearing loss. However, specialized hearing aids such as bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) may suffice rather than surgery in most patients. Bone-anchored hearing aids transmit sound directly through bone into the inner ear, bypassing the external ear canal and the middle ear (both of which are often affected in individuals with TCS. Reconstructive surgery may be performed to help correct outer ear malformations for functional and cosmetic reasons. Generally, reconstruction of the external ear should be performed first.
In individuals with TCS who exhibit eye abnormalities and associated visual impairment, corrective glasses, contact lenses, surgery, and/or other supportive techniques may be used to help improve vision in some cases. Artificial teeth (dentures), dental implants, braces, dental surgery, and/or other corrective procedures may be used to correct dental abnormalities.
Structural airway problems associated with TCS can make it difficult for anesthesiologists to manage and maintain an airway during surgery. Proper evaluation including a comprehensive preoperative assessment and complete clinical history should be performed to best plan an anesthetic strategy.
In Tcof1, Polr1b, Polr1c and Polr1d animal models of TCS, p53 protein, which helps the body to kill off damaged, sick or unwanted cells, is abnormally activated, leading to the loss of cranial neural crest cells and consequently the craniofacial bone and cartilage features characteristic of TCS. Researchers are exploring ways to inhibit p53 function or block the mechanisms that lead to p53 activation as possible therapeutic treatments to prevent the development of TCS. Recent advances in studies of animal models which mimic TCS in humans indicate that dietary antioxidant supplementation may protect neural and neural crest cells against damage during embryogenesis and facilitate normal craniofacial development. More research is necessary to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of such approaches and what role they may play in the prevention of TCS or the treatment of individuals with TCS.
Some researchers are studying the use of stems cells found in fat tissue (adipose-derived stem cells) as an adjunct therapy for improved surgery outcomes in individuals with craniofacial disorders such as TCS. Initial results have shown that surgical outcomes may be improved using these stem cells to help stimulate regrowth of the affected areas. However, this therapy is experimental and controversial, and requires more research to determine its viability as a potential therapy.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Toll-free: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
Email: [email protected]
Some current clinical trials also are posted on the following page on the NORD website:
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
For information about clinical trials conducted in Europe, contact:
Noack Watt, K. and Trainor P.A. Neurocristopathies: Disorders of Neural Crest Cell Development. In: Neural Crest Cells: Evolution Development and Disease (Paul Trainor: Ed) Elsevier, NY; 2014.
Hennekam RCM, Krantz ID, Allanson JE. Eds. Gorlin’s Syndromes of the Head and Neck. 5th ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY; 2010:889-892.
Dixon J., Trainor P.A. and Dixon M. Treacle and Treacher Collins syndrome. In: Inborn Errors of Development – The Molecular Basis of Clinical Disorders of Morphogenesis (Ed Epstein, Erickson, Wynshaw-Boris) Oxford University Press, NY; 2008.
Wulfsburgh EA. Treacher Collins Syndrome. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:262-3.
Sanchez E, Laplace-Builhé B, Mau-Them FT, et al. POLR1B and neural crest cell anomalies in Treacher Collins syndrome type 4. Genet Med. 2019 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0669-9. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41436-019-0669-9
Watt KEN, Neben CL, Hall S, Merrill AE, Trainor PA. tp53-dependent and independent signaling underlies the pathogenesis and possible prevention of Acrofacial Dysostosis – Cincinnati type. Hum Mol Genet. 2018: 27(15):2628-2643 https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/27/15/2628/4994795
Terrazas K, Dixon J, Trainor PA and Dixon MJ. Rare syndromes of the head and face – Mandibulofacial and Acrofacial dysostosis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2017 May;6(3). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28186364
Conley ZR, Hague M, Kurosaka H, Dixon J, Dixon MJ, Trainor PA. A quantitative method for defining high-arched palate using the Tcof1(+/-) mutant mouse as a model. Dev Biol. 2016 Jul 15;415(2):296-305. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160615303687?via%3Dihub
Noack Watt KE, Achilleos A, Neben CL, Merrill AE, Trainor PA. The roles of RNA Polymerase I and III subunits Polr1c and Polr1d in craniofacial development and in zebrafish models of Treacher Collins syndrome. PLOS Genetics 2016; 12(7):e1006187. https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006187
Sakai D, Dixon J, Achilleos A, Dixon M, Trainor PA. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation. Nat Commun. 2016; 21;7:10328. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26792133
Yelick P and Trainor PA . Ribosomopathies: Global Process, Tissue Specific Defects. Rare Diseases 2015; 3(1):e1025185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442198
Trainor PA and Richtsmeier JT. Facing up to the challenges of advancing Craniofacial Research. Am J Med Genet A 2015;167(7):1451-1454. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820983
Weaver KN, Watt KE, Hufnagel RB, Navajas Acedo J, Linscott LL, Sund KL, Bender PL, König R, Lourenco CM, Hehr U, Hopkin RJ, Lohmann DR, Trainor PA, Wieczorek D, Saal HM. Acrofacial Dysostosis, Cincinnati Type, a Mandibulofacial Dysostosis Syndrome with Limb Anomalies, Is Caused by POLR1A Dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet. 2015; 96(5):765-74. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929715001123
Trainor PA and Andrews BT Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management. American Journal Medical Genetics C. Seminars in Medical Genetics 2013;163(4):283-94. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24123981
Sakai D, Dixon J, Dixon MJ and Trainor PA. Mammalian neurogenesis requires Treacle-Plk1 for precise control of spindle orientation, mitotic progression and maintenance of neural progenitor cells. PLOS Genetics 2012;8(3):e1002566. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479190
Marra KG, Rubin JP. The potential of adipose-derived stem cells in craniofacial repair and regeneration. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2012;96:95-97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457180
Plomp RG, Bredero-Boelhouwer HH, Joosten KF, et al. Obstructive sleep apnoea in Treacher Collins syndrome: prevalence, severity and cause. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:696-701. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521672
Schlump JU, Stein A, Hehr U, et al. Treacher-Collins syndrome: clinical implications for the paediatrician-a new mutation in a severely affected newborn and comparison with three further patients with the same mutation, and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:1611-1688. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729243
Conte C, D’Apice MR, Rinaldi F, et al. Novel mutations of TCOF1 gene in European patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:125. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951868
Dauwerse JG, Dixon J, Seland S, et al. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of RNA polymerases I and III cause Treacher Collins syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011;43:20-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131976
Trainor PA, Dixon J, Dixon MJ. Treacher Collins syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and prevention. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:275-283. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107148
Jones NC, Lynn ML, Gaudenz K, et al. Prevention of the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins syndrome through inhibition of p53 function. 2008;14:125-133. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093709/
Dixon J, Jones NC, Sandell LL, et al., TCOF1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2006;103:13403-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16938878
Kobus K, Wojcicki P. Surgical treatment of Treacher Collins syndrome. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:549-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641634
Dixon J, Ellis I, Bottani A, Temple K, Dixon MJ. Identification of mutations in TCOF1: use of molecular analysis in the pre- and postnatal diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;127:244-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15150774
Marszalk B Wojcicki P, Kobus K, Trzeciak WH. Clinical features, treatment and genetic background of Treacher Collins syndrome. J Appl Genet. 2004;43:223-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12080178
Teber OA, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Fischer S, et al., Genotyping in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome revealed unexpected phenotypic variation. Eur J Med Genet. 2004;12:879-90. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15340364
Toriello HV. Treacher Collins syndrome. Ear Nose Throat J. 1999;78:752. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10544531
Dixon MJ. Treacher Collins syndrome: from linkage to prenatal testing. J Laryngol Otol. 1998;112:705-09. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1050672/
Marsh KL, Dixon J, Dixon MJ. Mutations in the Treacher Collins syndrome gene lead to mislocalization of the nucleolar protein treacle. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;112:1795-800. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9736782
Dixon J, Edwards SE, Gladwin AJ, et al. The Treacher Collins Syndrome Collaborative Group. Positional cloning of a gene involved in the pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Nat Genet. 1996;12:130-36. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v12/n2/abs/ng0296-130.html
Katsanis SH, Jabs EW. Treacher Collins Syndrome. 2004 Jul 20 [Updated 2018 Sep 27]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2019. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1532/ Accessed Oct 9, 2019.
McKusick VA., ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Baltimore. MD: The Johns Hopkins University; Entry No:154500; Last Update: 04/16/2018. Available at: http://omim.org/entry/154500 Accessed Oct 9, 2019.
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.
The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100