NORD gratefully acknowledges Joseph Kim, NORD Editorial Intern from the University of Notre Dame, and Albert La Spada, MD, PhD, FACMG, Professor of Pediatrics and Cellular & Molecular Medicine; Vice Chair and Division Head of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics & Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego; Associate Director, Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
SummaryKennedy disease is a rare, X-linked slowly progressive neuromuscular disorder. Kennedy disease is typically an adult-onset disease, where symptoms occur mainly between the ages of 20 and 50. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as muscle weakness and cramps in the arms, legs, and facial area, enlarged breasts, and difficulty with speaking and swallowing (dysphagia). Kennedy disease affects fewer than 1 in 150,000 males and does not typically occur in females, who are protected by their low levels of circulating testosterone, accounting for the sex-limited inheritance pattern in this disorder. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive, and life expectancy is normal, though a small percentage of patients (~ 10%) succumb to the disease in their 60’s or 70’s due to swallowing complications (aspiration pneumonia, asphyxiation) resulting from the bulbar weakness. Introduction Kennedy disease is named after William R. Kennedy, MD, who described this condition in an abstract in 1966 and a full report in 1968.
Affected individuals begin to develop neurological symptoms between 20 to 50 years of age. These early symptoms include:
· Weakness/cramps in arm and leg muscles
· Face, mouth, and tongue muscle weakness
· Difficulty with speaking and swallowing (dysphagia)
· Twitching (Fasciculations)
· Tremors and trembling in certain positions
· Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)
· Testicular atrophy
The disease affects the lower motor neurons that are responsible for the movement of many muscles in the legs, arms, mouth, and throat. Affected individuals will show signs of twitching, often in the tongue and/or hand, followed by muscle weakness and problems with facial muscles. These neurons, which connect the spinal cord to the muscles, become defective and die, so the muscles cannot contract. The destruction of these nerves is the main reason for the numbness, muscle weakness, and inability to control muscle contraction. With lack of normal neuromuscular function, a patient may experience hypertrophied calves in which the calf muscles thicken due to muscle cramps. In some cases, patients may also have one side of the body more affected than the other side.
The disease also affects nerves that control the bulbar muscles, which are important for breathing, speaking, and swallowing. Androgen insensitivity can also occur, sometimes beginning in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, characterized by enlarged breasts, decreased masculinity, and infertility. Patients may experience problems such as low sperm count and erectile dysfunction.
Kennedy disease is an X-linked genetic disorder that occurs primarily in males. Very rarely, female carriers of the abnormal gene may show symptoms.
Kennedy disease is caused by a mutation in a gene that encodes for a protein known as the androgen receptor (AR) and was mapped to band Xq11-q12 on the X chromosome. The instructions within every gene consist of different arrangements of four basic chemicals (nucleotide bases) called adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Individuals with the disease have an abnormal section in the AR gene, which is due to an excessive number of CAG trinucleotide repetitions in the DNA sequence. An unaffected individual has 10-35 CAG repeats in the AR gene while a person with Kennedy disease has more than 36 CAG repeats in the gene.
The androgen receptor is in the cytoplasm of a cell where it responds to signals from male sex hormones (androgens). These receptors are abundant in many body tissues such as the skin, kidney, prostate, skeletal muscle, and the central nervous system motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. In an unaffected person, the androgen hormone will bind to the receptor, and then the hormone-receptor complex will relocate into the nucleus, where it will signal genes to increase protein production for various functions.
In Kennedy disease, the exact mechanism for neuronal impairment is unknown, but it has to do with an altered functioning of the androgen receptor.
Chromosomes are present in the nucleus of all human cells and contain an individual’s genetic information. Normal individuals contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. There are 22 autosomes (chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes) numbered 1-22, and sex chromosomes labeled X and Y. Normal males have one X and one Y chromosome, while normal females have two X chromosomes. Each chromosome has two arms: a short arm labeled “p” and a long arm labeled “q”. These chromosomes are even further divided into numbered bands. For example, “chromosome Xq11” refers to band 11 on the long arm of the X chromosome. These bands are specific locations for the thousands of genes located on individual chromosomes.
An abnormal gene on the X chromosome causes X-linked disorders, such as Kennedy disease. Normal females have two X chromosomes, in which one is an activated chromosome and the other is inactivated. Female carriers for Kennedy disease typically do not show symptoms because the androgen receptor must bind to its ligand, testosterone, to translocate to the nucleus and perform its functions. As females have low circulating levels of testosterone, Kennedy disease female carriers do not activate their mutant androgen receptors, thus rendering the mutant state of the androgen receptor protein innocuous. Males have only one X chromosome and will develop Kennedy disease if they inherit the X chromosome containing the disease gene. Affected males with X-linked disorders will always pass the gene to their daughters, but will only pass their normal Y chromosome to their sons. Therefore, all of the daughters of an affected male will be carriers for the disease, while sons of an affected male will not have the disease. Sons of female carriers have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the disease, while daughters have a 50 percent chance of becoming carriers.
Kennedy disease affects fewer than 1 in 150,000 males and is very rare in females. Kennedy disease has been diagnosed in the USA, Europe, Asia, South America, and Australia. The Japanese population appears to have a very high prevalence of Kennedy Disease because of a founder effect.
A diagnosis of Kennedy disease is suspected based on physical signs and symptoms. Diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular genetic testing on a blood sample for CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the AR gene. Individuals with greater than 36 CAG trinucleotide repeats in the AR gene are diagnosed with the condition.
Clinical Testing and Work-Up
Annual examinations to assess muscle strength may be appropriate.
Currently, there is no known treatment or cure for Kennedy disease. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy are commonly used to adapt to the progressing disease and maintain an individual’s skills. Braces, walkers, and wheel chairs are used for ambulation. Breast reduction surgery is sometimes used as needed in patients with gynecomastia. Testosterone is not an appropriate treatment, as it can make the disease worse.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
For information about clinical trials conducted in Europe, contact:
Contact for additional information about Kennedy disease:
Albert La Spada, MD, PhD, FACMG
Professor of Pediatrics and Cellular & Molecular Medicine
Vice Chair and Division Head of Genetics
Department of Pediatrics & Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego
Associate Director, Institute for Genomic Medicine
University of California, San Diego
Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine Building
2800 Torrey Pines Scenic Drive, Rm 3003
La Jolla, CA 92037-0642
Russman BS. Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy. In: The NORD Guide to Rare Disorders, Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2003: 636.
La Spada A. Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy. 1999 Feb 26 [Updated 2014 Jul 3]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2015. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1333/ Accessed May 11, 2015.
Barkhaus PE, Verman S. Kennedy Disease.Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1172604-overview Updated: Mar 11, 2014. Accessed May 11, 2015.
NINDS Kennedy’s Disease Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/kennedys/kennedys.htm#What_is_the_prognosis Last updated May 2, 2014. Accessed May 11, 2015.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, X-Linked 1; SMAX1. Entry No: 313200. Last Edited 09/23/2010. Available at: http://omim.org/entry/313200 Accessed May 11, 2015.
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy . Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy Reviewed December 2012. Accessed May 11, 2015.
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.
The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100