This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare cause of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). It happens when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the ovaries causing inflammation, atrophy and fibrosis. These changes stop the ovaries from working normally. The main symptoms of autoimmune oophorotis are irregular or absent menstrual period (amenorrhea) and symptoms related to ovarian cysts such as abdominal cramping, bloating, nausea and vomiting. Autoimmune oophoritis may occur as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I and type II but has also been associated with lupus, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune conditions. The underlying cause of autoimmune oophoritis is unknown. Diagnosis involves a special blood test which looks for anti-steroid or anti-ovarian antibodies, a pelvic ultrasound to look for enlarged cystic ovaries and tests to rule out other possible causes of POI. Management of autoimmune oophoritis involves emotional support, possible estrogen replacement therapy and management of other autoimmune conditions.
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