This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
CASK-related disorders are a group of genetic disorders that affect brain development. The two main related disorders include microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) and X-linked intellectual disability (XL-ID) with or without nystagmus. Males with these disorders usually have more severe symptoms than females. The signs and symptoms may include: autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, epilepsy disorders, seizures, a small head size (microcephaly) with specific brain findings (pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia), delayed growth, vision and hearing issues, and low muscle tone (hypotonia).
CASK-related disorders are caused by mutations in the CASK gene and are inherited in an X-linked manner. Some researchers have suggested that a condition called FG syndrome 4 may also be caused by mutations in the CASK gene, but it seems that the only family described with this syndrome may have actually had XL-ID, with or without nystagmus. Treatment is focused on alleviating symptoms and may include medication to control seizures, nutritional support, hearing and vision aids, and physical therapy. The best management usually requires a team of specialists.
For more information, visit GARD.