This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Coloboma of the optic nerve is a congenital eye abnormality in which the optic nerve (which carries images of what the eye sees to the brain) is incompletely formed. The condition may occur in one or both eyes. The degree of visual impairment varies widely depending on the severity and structures involved. Serous detachments of the retina commonly occur in affected people, with a high risk for extensive retinal detachment. The coloboma may be associated with other features, such as a small eye (microphthalmia) with or without a cyst; small cornea (microcornea); or coloboma of other eye structures. Although the condition is present from birth, diagnosis may be delayed since the coloboma is inside the eye and not visible by simple inspection. Coloboma of the optic nerve may occur sporadically, may be due to a genetic mutation and be inherited, or may occur as a feature of an underlying syndrome or other genetic condition. There is no treatment to correct an optic nerve coloboma, but low vision aids may be helpful for some people.
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