This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. People with this condition are genetically male (one X and one Y chromosome) but do not respond to male hormones at all. As a result, they generally have normal female external genitalia and female breasts. However, they do not have a uterus or cervix so are unable to menstruate or conceive children. Other signs and symptoms may include undescended testes and sparse to absent pubic hair. Gender identity is typically female. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is caused by changes (mutations) in the AR gene and is inherited in an X-linked manner. Treatment and gender assignment can be a very complex issue, and must be individualized with each affected person. In general, surgery may be required to remove testes that are located in unusual places and estrogen replacement therapy can be prescribed after puberty.
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