This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) affects the brain and how the brain works. Symptoms of HE may include behavior changes, confusion, cognitive difficulty, and seizures. Psychosis, including visual hallucinations and paranoid delusions, has also been reported. HE occurs mainly in adults and affects females more than males. The exact cause of HE is not known but may involve an abnormal immune or inflammatory response. HE is associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but the nature of the relationship between the two conditions is unclear. Diagnosis of HE is based on the symptoms, clinical exam, and laboratory testing. More common conditions may need to be excluded first. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms. Most people with HE respond well to corticosteroid therapy or other immunosuppressive therapies. With treatment, symptoms typically improve or resolve over a few months.
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