Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an inherited condition that causes overactivity of the parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism). These glands regulate the body’s use of calcium, so overactivity can lead to high calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia). The syndrome typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. The hyperparathyroidism in people with HPT-JT is usually caused by a benign tumor in the parathyroid gland called a parathyroid adenoma. In some people with HPT-JT, it is caused by a cancerous (malignant) tumor called a parathyroid carcinoma. Signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism may include kidney stones, reduced bone mass, fatigue, muscle weakness, bone or joint pain, and constipation.
Some people with HPT-JT also develop a benign tumor in the jaw called an ossifying fibroma. These tumors can grow quickly if not treated. Other features of HPT-JT may include kidney growths such as cysts, hamartomas, or rarely, Wilms tumor. Women with HPT-JT may develop benign or malignant tumors in the uterus.
HPT-JT is caused by mutations in the CDC73 gene and inheritance is autosomal dominant. The diagnosis is based on the presence of signs and symptoms (identified with blood tests for hyperparathyroidism and imaging studies for tumors) and genetic testing. Treatment may involve surgery to remove a parathyroid gland with a tumor, and to remove a jaw tumor. People who are unable to have tumors removed may need a medication called cinacalcet hydrochloride to treat severe hypercalcemia.
For more information, visit GARD.