This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Hypomyelination and congenital cataract is a very rare disease characterized by cloudy coverings of the eye that are present at birth (congenital cataracts) and neurologic impairment that becomes apparent after the first year of life. The neurologic impairment is progressive and presents as ataxia and spasticity. Affected individuals may lose the ability to walk. Signs and symptoms may vary but can include loss of sensation in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy), curvature of the spine (scoliosis), difficulty speaking (dysarthria), seizures, and moderate intellectual disability. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract is caused by a change (mutation ) in the FAM126A gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Diagnosis of hypomyelination and congenital cataract is based on clinical findings of muscle weakness and cataracts, and a brain MRI that indicates a loss of the myelin surrounding the neurons. The diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing of the FAM126A gene. Treatment is focused on relieving symptoms of the condition and may include physical therapy, special education, and medication to treat seizures.
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