This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Lesch Nyhan syndrome is a condition characterized by neurological and behavioral abnormalities and the overproduction of uric acid in the body. It occurs almost exclusively in males. Signs and symptoms may include inflammatory arthritis (gout), kidney stones, bladder stones, and moderate cognitive disability. Nervous system and behavioral disturbances also occur, such as involuntary muscle movements and self injury (including biting and head banging). People with Lesch Nyhan syndrome usually cannot walk, require assistance sitting, and generally use a wheelchair. Lesch Nyhan syndrome is caused by changes (mutations) in the HPRT1 gene and is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Affected people often do not survive past the first or second decade of life due to renal failure.
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