This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that occurs due to abnormal and uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Some people with multiple myeloma, especially those with early stages of the condition, have no concerning signs or symptoms. When present, the most common symptom is anemia, which can be associated with fatigue and shortness of breath. Other features of the condition may include multiple infections; abnormal bleeding; bone pain; weak and/or easily broken bones; and numbness and/or weakness of the arms and legs. The exact underlying cause of multiple myeloma is currently unknown. Factors that are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma include increasing age, male sex, African American race, radiation exposure, a family history of the condition, obesity, and/or a personal history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Treatment varies based on many factors, but may include one or more of the following interventions: chemotherapy, corticosteroid medications, targeted therapy, stem cell transplant, biological therapy, radiation therapy, surgery and/or watchful waiting.
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