This information is provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD).
Thanatophoric dysplasia is a severe skeletal disorder characterized by extremely short limbs and folds of extra skin on the arms and legs. Other features of this condition include a narrow chest, short ribs, underdeveloped lungs, and an enlarged head with a large forehead and prominent, wide-spaced eyes. Most infants with thanatophoric dysplasia are stillborn or die shortly after birth from respiratory failure. A few affected individuals have survived into childhood with extensive medical help. Thanatophoric dysplasia is caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene. While this condition is considered to be autosomal dominant, virtually all cases have occurred in people with no history of the disorder in their family.
Two major forms of thanatophoric dysplasia have been described, type I and type II. Type I thanatophoric dysplasia is distinguished by the presence of curved thigh bones and flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly). Type II thanatophoric dysplasia is characterized by straight thigh bones and a moderate to severe skull abnormality called a cloverleaf skull.
For more information, visit GARD.