NORD gratefully acknowledges Rodger J. Elble, MD, PhD, Professor of Neurology, Director, Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Affected individuals often become depressed, uncaring (apathetic), inactive, and unable to act or make decisions (abulic). They become withdrawn, and exhibit poor judgement, reduced planning and organizational skills, and less spontaneous communication. In addition, affected individuals may have difficulty with speech (dysarthria), swallowing (dysphagia), and urinary bladder control (incontinence). Some patients exhibit abnormalities that are similar to those seen in Parkinson disease, such as slowness, poor balance and short, shuffling steps (Parkinsonism). Tremor is usually not a feature.
Many individuals with Binswanger disease have a history of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Consequently, the symptoms and signs of this disease develop in a stuttering or stepwise fashion; in contrast to the insidious, gradually progressive course of neurodegenerative diseases (see Related Disorders).
Binswanger disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, thromboembolism and other diseases that obstruct blood vessels that supply the deep structures of the brain. Hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, heart disease and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for Binswanger disease. Rare hereditary diseases such as CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) also cause Binswanger disease. Thus, Binswanger disease is actually a clinical syndrome of vascular dementia with multiple causes, not a specific disease. The reduced blood flow in brain tissue appears to produce secondary inflammation that may be a target for treatment.
Binswanger disease affects males and females in equal numbers and usually occurs in individuals age 50 years or older.
The diagnosis of Binswanger disease is usually based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including a detailed patient history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the brain. MRI and CT reveal nerve fiber (white matter) degeneration and multiple small strokes in the deep structures of the brain.
The ischemic brain damage in Binswanger disease is not reversible, so treatment is focused on reducing risk factors for stroke, thereby retarding progression of the disease. Treatment usually involves the use of anti-hypertensive drugs to control blood pressure, antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin) or warfarin to reduce thromboembolism, statins to reduce atherosclerosis, smoking cessation and diabetic control. Antidepressant drugs are helpful in the management of depression associated with Binswanger disease. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov . All studies receiving U.S. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Toll free: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
Some current clinical trials also are posted on the following page on the NORD website:
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
For information about clinical trials conducted in Europe, contact:
Contact for additional information about Binswanger disease:
Rodger J. Elble, MD, PhD
Professor of Neurology
Director, Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Center
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
PO Box 19645
Springfield, IL 62794-9645
Phone: (217) 545-7194
FAX: (217) 545-1903
Huisa BN, Rosenberg GA. Binswanger’s disease: toward a diagnosis agreement and therapeutic approach. Expert Rev Neurother. 2014;14:1203-13.
Erkinjuntti T. Diagnosis and management of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2002;63:91-101.
Erkinjuntti T. Subcortical vascular dementia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;13 Suppl 2:58-60.
Loeb C. Binswanger’s disease is not a single entity. Neurol Sci. 2000;21:343-48.
Olsen CG, Classen ME. Senile dementia of the Binswanger’s type. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58:2068-74.
Caplan LR. Binswanger’s disease–revisited. Neurology 1995;45:626-633.
Rosenberg GA. Binswanger’s disease: biomarkers in the inflammatory form of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. J Neurochem. 2018;144:634-43.
Dichgans M. A new cause of hereditary small vessel disease: angiopathy of retina and brain. Neurology 2003;60:8-9.
Jellinger KA. The pathology of ischemic-vascular dementia: an update. Journal of Neurological Sciences 2002;203-204:153-157.
Erkinjuntti T, Inzitari D, Pantoni L, et al. Limitations of clinical criteria for the diagnosis of vascular dementia in clinical trials. Is a focus on subcortical vascular dementia a solution? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;903:262-72.
Davous P. CADASIL: a review with proposed diagnostic criteria. Eur J Neurol. 1998;5:219-33.
CADASIL syndrome: a genetic form of vascular dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1998;11:71-77.
NINDS Binswanger’s Disease Information Page. Last Update 2019-03-27. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Binswangers-Disease-Information-Page Accessed April 29, 2019.
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional.
The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.
National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100